Oil embargo of 1970s was the trigger point to divert the attention of human society towards the environment. This was further supplemented by rising prices of fossil fuels, recent geopolitical development and the rising population of world. This twisted the society towards bringing renewable energy on practical grounds. Though the technological development in the area of renewable energy was being carried ever since 18th century.
The research on solar energy started long back in 1830s when the phenomenon of photovoltaic effect originated and scientific society came out with a secure, widely available, and carbon-free source of energy. With continuous R&D made over years, the energy became commercialized in 1960s with start of module manufacturing and conference organized to provide a bigger platform to this market. The era of 1970s was dominated with development of manufacturing base where very minimal share reached India. This manufacturing base was primarily crystalline and the majority of systems installed during this time were small stand alone solar systems. Thin film entered in 1984 with the introduction of amorphous silicon cell.
Generation of Solar Photovoltaic Development
Advancement in the Solar Photovoltaic's has been clearly demarcated in the four generations. Originating from crystalline silicon, it is today moving towards the 4th generation nano-particle cells.
- Monocrystalline Silicon Cells
- Polycrystalline Silicon Cells
- Amorphous silicon
- Non-Silicon Cells: Cd-Te (Cadmium Telluride), CIGS (Cadmium Indium Gallium Selenide), Ga-As (Gallium Arsenide)
- Hetero Junction Cells
- Concentrating Cells
- Photo Electrochemical Cells (PEC)
- Dye-Sensitized Cells
- Polymer Cells
- Quantam Cells
...any many other to come
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